By Todhunter, I. (Isaac)

The beneficial reception which has been granted to my background of the Calculus of adaptations throughout the 19th Century has inspired me to adopt one other paintings of an analogous style. the topic to which I now invite realization has excessive claims to attention as a result of the sophisticated difficulties which it includes, the dear contributions to research which it has produced, its very important functional purposes, and the eminence of these who've cultivated it.

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**Additional info for A history of the mathematical theory of probability : from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace**

**Example text**

N (2) If a Ͼ 0, then 2a is the positive real number b such that bn ϭ a. n (3) (a) If a Ͻ 0 and n is odd, then 2a is the negative real number b such n that b ϭ a. n (b) If a Ͻ 0 and n is even, then 2a is not a real number. 4, are needed to define 2a if a Ͻ 0 and n is an even positive integer, because for all real numbers b, bn Ն 0 whenever n is even. 2 If n ϭ 2, we write 2a instead of 2 a and call 2a the principal square 3 root of a or, simply, the square root of a. The number 2 a is the (principal) cube root of a.

43–44: Approximate the real-number expression. Express the answer in scientific notation accurate to four significant figures. 52 ϫ 10 3 Exer. 19–24: The two given numbers are coordinates of points A and B, respectively, on a coordinate line. Express the indicated statement as an inequality involving the absolute value symbol. 84 ϫ 10 3͒ 45 The point on a coordinate line corresponding to 22 may be determined by constructing a right triangle with sides of length 1, as shown in the figure. Determine the points that correspond to 23 and 25, respectively.

The largest documented halibut weighed 230 kilograms. Estimate its length. 43, where W is in tons and L is in feet. Estimate the weight of a whale that is 25 feet long. 99 Weight lifters’ handicaps O’Carroll’s formula is used to handicap weight lifters. If a lifter who weighs b kilograms lifts w kilograms of weight, then the handicapped weight W is given by w Wϭ 3 . 2 b Ϫ 35 Suppose two lifters weighing 75 kilograms and 120 kilograms lift weights of 180 kilograms and 250 kilograms, respectively.