Acupuncture: Theories and Evidence by Hong Hai

By Hong Hai

Acupuncture is largely practised within the twenty first century in scientifically built nations for quite a lot of illnesses starting from continual soreness, giddiness and hypertension to gastrointestinal issues and sexual disorder. but the explanations for its vaunted efficacy stay an issue of controversy. In conventional chinese language scientific concept, the mechanism of motion in acupuncture used to be understood by way of the circulate of qi and the stability of yin and yang in the course of the body's meridians, a fancy community painstaking charted yet by no means chanced on. glossy scientific researchers have tested outdated and new needling issues, and a few view them as "trigger issues" that stimulate physiological responses within the physique. there's additionally transparent facts of robust placebo results, even though it has now not been conclusively verified that that this can be both the most or the one major impact.

This quantity comprises twelve articles protecting the newest medical causes of the mechanism of acupuncture and important stories of scientific trials on its efficacy via major students, together with Edzard Ernst at Exeter, Lixing Lao on the collage of Maryland, workstation Leung on the chinese language college of Hong Kong and Thomas Lundeberg at Karolinska Institute.

Hong Hai is Senior Fellow on the Institute of complicated reviews and Adjunct Professor, Nanyang Technological collage, Singapore and Director of the Renhai sanatorium.

Readership: doctors, either Western docs and TCM practitioners, acupuncturists, researchers and scholars. additionally, libraries of TCM specialist institutions and educating institutes.

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In a rat inflammatory model, 10 Hz EA, but not 100 Hz EA suppressed inflammation likely by activating the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA). Also, in a rat model of neuropathic ‘pain’ 2 Hz EA stimulation for 30 min suppressed cold hypersensitivity for more than 24 hours, whereas 100 Hz was without effect. Experimental studies in rats have explored the central pathways mediating low- and high-frequency EA analgesia. Two hertz EA sequentially activates the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (betaendorphinergic neurons), PAG, medulla (enkephalinergic neurons), and the dorsal horn to suppress nociceptive transmission whereas 100 Hz EA activate parabrachial nucleus-PAG-medulla-spinal dorsal horn to suppress nociceptive transmission.

Indd 21 1/25/2013 6:13:45 PM b1528 Acupuncture: Theory and Evidence 22 b1528_Ch-02 25 Jan 2013 6:22 PM S. 29,72 EXPLANATORY MODELS Today, if we talk about explanatory models of a therapy we are referring to the mechanisms and physiological pathways through which that therapy is thought to act. Therapy x acts on physiological pathway y to trigger change z which reduces the symptom. In this model there is a chain of causal events (x-y-z) between the therapy and the change of symptom. 102 Stephen Hawking, arguably the world’s greatest scientist recently wrote about models: “Whenever we develop a model of the world and find it to be successful, we tend to attribute to the model the quality of reality or absolute truth.

SUMMARY The term ‘acupuncture’ covers a diverse academic field that spans from ancient medical history to the most advanced contemporary neurophysiology. Practice ranges from simple techniques that can be taught to patients to more sophisticated invasive techniques that are the basis for much of the field of neuromodulation. ‘Acupuncture’ as a treatment for pain encompasses much more than simply needling: it involves a complex interaction and context that may include empathy, touch, intention, attention, expectation and conditioning.

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