By Richard A. Bryant PhD
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Extra info for Acute Stress Disorder: What It Is and How to Treat It
Studies that have assessed both peritraumatic and persistent dissociation have found that it is the dissociation that persists after exposure to the trauma that is linked to both acute (Panasetis & Bryant, 2003) and chronic (Briere, Scott, & Weathers, 2005) posttraumatic reactions. This is consistent with a finding that the most widely used measure of peritraumatic dissociation—the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (Marmar, Weiss, & Metzler, 1997)—comprises two subscales. , 2009).
In contrast to persistent psychopathological conditions, it was believed that 19 20 THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ISSUES many psychologically robust individuals could experience CSR but they would normally resolve these reactions within days, or possibly weeks. S. troops experienced CSR, which was not alarming because it was expected that these responses would abate. These ideas permeated diagnostic systems that emerged after World War II. ” These definitions built on the premise that initial stress reactions were transient reactions in otherwise healthy people.
In the context of many settings in which the World Health Organization is influential—which include war, massive disasters, and civil conflicts—many people argued that the definition of acute stress reaction was more practically useful than the narrow criteria for ASD (Solomon, Laor, & McFarlane, 1996). There has been some criticism of the definition of acute stress reaction, however, because many acute stress reactions can persist for longer than 48 hours. There is probably no empirical basis for using this period of time as a cutoff—for example, one study found that 70% of earthquake survivors displayed acute stress reactions in the first 48 hours, and 60% continued to do so after the first 48 hours (Bergiannaki, Psarros, Varsou, Paparrigopoulos, & Soldatos, 2003).