African Struggles Today: Social Movements Since Independence by Peter Dwyer, Leo Zeilig

By Peter Dwyer, Leo Zeilig

This groundbreaking research examines the profits, contradictions, and frustrations of twenty-first century prodemocracy struggles throughout Southern Africa.

Three major Africa students examine the social forces using the democratic transformation of postcolonial states throughout southern Africa. wide study and interviews with civil society organizers in Zimbabwe, South Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Namibia, and Swaziland tell this research of the demanding situations confronted through non-governmental organisations in referring to either to the attendant inequality of globalization and to grassroots struggles for social justice.

About the Authors:
Peter Dwyer is a teach in economics at Ruskin collage in Oxford.
Leo Zeilig Lecturer on the Institute of Commonwealth experiences, collage of London.

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2 See Ibn Khaldūn, ʿIbar, vol.  217–27. 3 See al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya, vol.  121–39. 2 31 The Zirid State in al-Mahdīya The fall of Qayrawān and the transfer of the capital to al-Mahdīya led to a transformation in the very nature of the Zirid principality. Prior to the Hilālī invasion the Zirids were in firm possession of both the coast and interior of Ifrīqiya. On many occasions they were able to project their authority into Libya in the east and al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ in the west. With the move to al-Mahdīya the Zirids became rulers of a coastal city-state that was merely one of several competing powers in the new post-invasion Ifrīqiya.

During his reign Yaḥyā’s fleet launched extensive raids against the Christians in Sardinia and Genoa, taking a great many captives. Yaḥyā recognized the authority of the Fatimids. In 505/1111 an emissary from the caliph in Cairo arrived at the court of Yaḥyā bearing costly presents and letters of greeting. In 508/1113–14 he appointed one of his sons as governor of Ṣfāqus and a second as governor of Sūsa. 11 Yaḥyā was succeeded by his son ʿAlī who had previously been governor of Ṣfāqus. Among his first actions were the conquest of Tunis and the pacification of Mt.

The effect of the Hilālī invasion on Ifrīqiya and North Africa in general has been a source of considerable controversy among modern scholars. The traditional view is that the arrival of the Banū Hilāl marked the triumph of nomadism over civilization. A strong, prosperous, and vibrant Zirid state succumbed to an unexpected and catastrophic invasion that plunged Ifrīqiya into a “dark age” of sorts. ”74 Recent studies have questioned this assumption. 75 Furthermore pastoralism and nomadism were hardly alien to Ifrīqiya and the Maghrib; a large portion of the Berber population had been living a Bedouin lifestyle since well before the coming of Islam.

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