Alpha-emitting particles in lungs: Recommendations of the by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Index Absorbed dose, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Average, 7 Spatial distribution of dose, 1 Alpha irradiation, 7, S Alpha particle, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 Alpha particle traversal, 3 Alpha radiation, 3, 7 Alpha-emitter, 7, 8 Alpha-emitting, 2 Elements, 1 Particles, 1, 8 Alpha-emitting radionuclides, 1, 8, 10 Alpha-rays, 5 Americium, 8 Animal experiments, 7, 9 Asbestos, 8 Atomic bomb survivors, 5 Average absorbed dose, 3 , 7 Average dose, 3 Beta irradiation, 6 Bone, 5 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Incidence, 7 Induction, 2, 5, 6 Lung, 7, 8 Production, 5 Carcinogen, 9 Lung, 9 Carcinogenesis, 6, 7 Radiation, 7 Carcinogenic, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Action, 8 Effect, 7 Effectiveness, 8, 9 Potential, 6 Risk, 6 Cell, lung, 5, 6, 11 Conclusions, 10 Curium-'244,s Deposited energy, 3 Dose, 2, 3,5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Absorbed dose, 3,5,6, 7, 10, 11 Average dose, 3 Limits, 10 Particulate surface dose, 3 to "Significant tissue volume", 3 Specific energy, 3 Total organ dose, 3 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5, 7, 8 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Observations in man, 8 Theoretical considerations, 5 Energy Deposited energy, 3 Deposition, 11 Specific energy, 3 Estimation of cell traversals, 11 Experimental animals, 2, 5, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate, 1, 8 Exposure limits, 8 Fluence, 12 Gamma irradiation, 6, 7 Hair follicle, 8 Hamsters, 7 Human beings, 8 Incidence, cancer, 7 Inhaled, 2,7 Inhaled particles, 2 Inhaled radionuclides, 2 LET, 6 , 7 Limits,dose, 10 Lung, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Carcinogen, 9 28 / INDEX Lung-Continued Cell, 5, 6, 11 Parenchyma, 2, 5 Peribronchiolar, 2, 5 Perivascular, 2 Subpleural, 2, 5 Subpleural lymphocytes, 2 Lymphocytes, 2 Man, 2, 8 Mechanisms of carcinogenesis, 6, 7, 11 Microscopic distribution of energy, 10 Multi-hit, 6 Multiple traversals, 11, 12 Multiply traversed cells, 4 NCRP, 3, 10 NCRP standards for plutonium, 10 Non-particulate eources, 8 Nonuniform, plutonium distribution, 5 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Effects of alphaemitting particles in lungs, 5 Observations in man, 8 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 8 Parenchyma, lung, 2, 5 Particle surface dose, 3 Particles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 Alpha-emitting, 2 Inhaled, 2 Particulate, 1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Alphaemitting radionuclides, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate plutonium, 7, 9, 10, 11 Particulate sources, 5, 8 Peribronchiolar, lung, 2, 5 Perivascular, lung, 2 2S8P~, 8 ~ " P u ,11 xaoP~On, 4, 11, 12 Plutonium, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Metal, 9 Nonuniform distribution, 5 Particles, 4, 5, 11, 12 Particulate, 7, 9, 10, 11 Uniform distribution, 5 Worker, 8 , 9 Radiation, 1, 2, 7 Carcinogenesis, 7 Exposure, 2 Protection, 1 Radionuclides, 1, 2 Alpha-emitting, 1 Inhaled, 2 Rata, 8 Risk, 6 Carcinogenic, 6 Significant tissue volume, 3 Dose, 3 Single-hit, 6 Single traversals, 6, 12 Singly traversed cells, 4, 6 Skin tumors, 8 Sources, 5, 7, 8 Particulate, 5, 8 Uniformly distributed,"l Spatial distribution of dose, 1, 10 of absorbed dose, 10 Specific energy, 3 Dose, 3 Standards for radiation exposure, 1 Subpleural, lung, 2, 5 Survival time, 8 Synovial sarcoma, 9 Theoretical considerations, 5 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5 Transplutonium, 1 Total organ dose, 3 Transversal, 3 Alpha particle, 3 Tumors, 8 Uniformly distributed, 7, Plutonium, 5, 7, 8 Sources, 7 Uniform irradiation.

Index Absorbed dose, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Average, 7 Spatial distribution of dose, 1 Alpha irradiation, 7, S Alpha particle, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 Alpha particle traversal, 3 Alpha radiation, 3, 7 Alpha-emitter, 7, 8 Alpha-emitting, 2 Elements, 1 Particles, 1, 8 Alpha-emitting radionuclides, 1, 8, 10 Alpha-rays, 5 Americium, 8 Animal experiments, 7, 9 Asbestos, 8 Atomic bomb survivors, 5 Average absorbed dose, 3 , 7 Average dose, 3 Beta irradiation, 6 Bone, 5 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Incidence, 7 Induction, 2, 5, 6 Lung, 7, 8 Production, 5 Carcinogen, 9 Lung, 9 Carcinogenesis, 6, 7 Radiation, 7 Carcinogenic, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Action, 8 Effect, 7 Effectiveness, 8, 9 Potential, 6 Risk, 6 Cell, lung, 5, 6, 11 Conclusions, 10 Curium-'244,s Deposited energy, 3 Dose, 2, 3,5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Absorbed dose, 3,5,6, 7, 10, 11 Average dose, 3 Limits, 10 Particulate surface dose, 3 to "Significant tissue volume", 3 Specific energy, 3 Total organ dose, 3 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5, 7, 8 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Observations in man, 8 Theoretical considerations, 5 Energy Deposited energy, 3 Deposition, 11 Specific energy, 3 Estimation of cell traversals, 11 Experimental animals, 2, 5, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate, 1, 8 Exposure limits, 8 Fluence, 12 Gamma irradiation, 6, 7 Hair follicle, 8 Hamsters, 7 Human beings, 8 Incidence, cancer, 7 Inhaled, 2,7 Inhaled particles, 2 Inhaled radionuclides, 2 LET, 6 , 7 Limits,dose, 10 Lung, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Carcinogen, 9 28 / INDEX Lung-Continued Cell, 5, 6, 11 Parenchyma, 2, 5 Peribronchiolar, 2, 5 Perivascular, 2 Subpleural, 2, 5 Subpleural lymphocytes, 2 Lymphocytes, 2 Man, 2, 8 Mechanisms of carcinogenesis, 6, 7, 11 Microscopic distribution of energy, 10 Multi-hit, 6 Multiple traversals, 11, 12 Multiply traversed cells, 4 NCRP, 3, 10 NCRP standards for plutonium, 10 Non-particulate eources, 8 Nonuniform, plutonium distribution, 5 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Effects of alphaemitting particles in lungs, 5 Observations in man, 8 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 8 Parenchyma, lung, 2, 5 Particle surface dose, 3 Particles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 Alpha-emitting, 2 Inhaled, 2 Particulate, 1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Alphaemitting radionuclides, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate plutonium, 7, 9, 10, 11 Particulate sources, 5, 8 Peribronchiolar, lung, 2, 5 Perivascular, lung, 2 2S8P~, 8 ~ " P u ,11 xaoP~On, 4, 11, 12 Plutonium, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Metal, 9 Nonuniform distribution, 5 Particles, 4, 5, 11, 12 Particulate, 7, 9, 10, 11 Uniform distribution, 5 Worker, 8 , 9 Radiation, 1, 2, 7 Carcinogenesis, 7 Exposure, 2 Protection, 1 Radionuclides, 1, 2 Alpha-emitting, 1 Inhaled, 2 Rata, 8 Risk, 6 Carcinogenic, 6 Significant tissue volume, 3 Dose, 3 Single-hit, 6 Single traversals, 6, 12 Singly traversed cells, 4, 6 Skin tumors, 8 Sources, 5, 7, 8 Particulate, 5, 8 Uniformly distributed,"l Spatial distribution of dose, 1, 10 of absorbed dose, 10 Specific energy, 3 Dose, 3 Standards for radiation exposure, 1 Subpleural, lung, 2, 5 Survival time, 8 Synovial sarcoma, 9 Theoretical considerations, 5 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5 Transplutonium, 1 Total organ dose, 3 Transversal, 3 Alpha particle, 3 Tumors, 8 Uniformly distributed, 7, Plutonium, 5, 7, 8 Sources, 7 Uniform irradiation.

Index Absorbed dose, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Average, 7 Spatial distribution of dose, 1 Alpha irradiation, 7, S Alpha particle, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 Alpha particle traversal, 3 Alpha radiation, 3, 7 Alpha-emitter, 7, 8 Alpha-emitting, 2 Elements, 1 Particles, 1, 8 Alpha-emitting radionuclides, 1, 8, 10 Alpha-rays, 5 Americium, 8 Animal experiments, 7, 9 Asbestos, 8 Atomic bomb survivors, 5 Average absorbed dose, 3 , 7 Average dose, 3 Beta irradiation, 6 Bone, 5 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Incidence, 7 Induction, 2, 5, 6 Lung, 7, 8 Production, 5 Carcinogen, 9 Lung, 9 Carcinogenesis, 6, 7 Radiation, 7 Carcinogenic, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Action, 8 Effect, 7 Effectiveness, 8, 9 Potential, 6 Risk, 6 Cell, lung, 5, 6, 11 Conclusions, 10 Curium-'244,s Deposited energy, 3 Dose, 2, 3,5, 6, 7, 10, 11 Absorbed dose, 3,5,6, 7, 10, 11 Average dose, 3 Limits, 10 Particulate surface dose, 3 to "Significant tissue volume", 3 Specific energy, 3 Total organ dose, 3 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5, 7, 8 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Observations in man, 8 Theoretical considerations, 5 Energy Deposited energy, 3 Deposition, 11 Specific energy, 3 Estimation of cell traversals, 11 Experimental animals, 2, 5, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate, 1, 8 Exposure limits, 8 Fluence, 12 Gamma irradiation, 6, 7 Hair follicle, 8 Hamsters, 7 Human beings, 8 Incidence, cancer, 7 Inhaled, 2,7 Inhaled particles, 2 Inhaled radionuclides, 2 LET, 6 , 7 Limits,dose, 10 Lung, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Cancer, 2, 5, 7, 8 Carcinogen, 9 28 / INDEX Lung-Continued Cell, 5, 6, 11 Parenchyma, 2, 5 Peribronchiolar, 2, 5 Perivascular, 2 Subpleural, 2, 5 Subpleural lymphocytes, 2 Lymphocytes, 2 Man, 2, 8 Mechanisms of carcinogenesis, 6, 7, 11 Microscopic distribution of energy, 10 Multi-hit, 6 Multiple traversals, 11, 12 Multiply traversed cells, 4 NCRP, 3, 10 NCRP standards for plutonium, 10 Non-particulate eources, 8 Nonuniform, plutonium distribution, 5 Observations in experimental animals, 7 Effects of alphaemitting particles in lungs, 5 Observations in man, 8 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 8 Parenchyma, lung, 2, 5 Particle surface dose, 3 Particles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 Alpha-emitting, 2 Inhaled, 2 Particulate, 1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Alphaemitting radionuclides, 10 Exposure, 7 Particulate plutonium, 7, 9, 10, 11 Particulate sources, 5, 8 Peribronchiolar, lung, 2, 5 Perivascular, lung, 2 2S8P~, 8 ~ " P u ,11 xaoP~On, 4, 11, 12 Plutonium, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Metal, 9 Nonuniform distribution, 5 Particles, 4, 5, 11, 12 Particulate, 7, 9, 10, 11 Uniform distribution, 5 Worker, 8 , 9 Radiation, 1, 2, 7 Carcinogenesis, 7 Exposure, 2 Protection, 1 Radionuclides, 1, 2 Alpha-emitting, 1 Inhaled, 2 Rata, 8 Risk, 6 Carcinogenic, 6 Significant tissue volume, 3 Dose, 3 Single-hit, 6 Single traversals, 6, 12 Singly traversed cells, 4, 6 Skin tumors, 8 Sources, 5, 7, 8 Particulate, 5, 8 Uniformly distributed,"l Spatial distribution of dose, 1, 10 of absorbed dose, 10 Specific energy, 3 Dose, 3 Standards for radiation exposure, 1 Subpleural, lung, 2, 5 Survival time, 8 Synovial sarcoma, 9 Theoretical considerations, 5 Effects of alpha-emitting particles in lungs, 5 Transplutonium, 1 Total organ dose, 3 Transversal, 3 Alpha particle, 3 Tumors, 8 Uniformly distributed, 7, Plutonium, 5, 7, 8 Sources, 7 Uniform irradiation.

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