An Inquiry into the Philosophical Foundations of the Human by Alfred Claassen

By Alfred Claassen

Many on hand books say specific procedure, framework, philosophy, or approach is the major to a rosy destiny for the social sciences, psychology, or cultural reports. although, they make those claims individually and in technical and really good methods. This publication addresses all of those points instantly in a full of life and generalist manner. strange approximately it truly is its seamless circulation throughout a wide variety of fields and concerns. infrequent approximately it's the emotional pressure it builds and sustains. certain approximately it really is that, whereas grounding and orienting the human sciences, it addresses the most important questions of philosophy. Brimming with clean perception, An Inquiry into the Philosophical Foundations of the Human Sciences is an bold, daring, deeply suggestion, and powerfully felt paintings with a tone as precise as its rules.

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Extra resources for An Inquiry into the Philosophical Foundations of the Human Sciences (San Francisco State University Series in Philosophy, Volume 14)

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This is a need to do familiar things and to engage in habitual action. Much of the pleasure of our work is of this familiar, habitual sort. Habits settle into the id alongside what are for many only intermittently much stronger needs. Such needs may be mild by comparison with sex and aggression, but they are of the id and they dominate a large portion of our lives. Ego The ego is essentially instrumental, unreflexive action. Its rational coping is in accord with the reality principle, and it is future oriented.

The theme of the stylish but impecunious aristocrat headed toward ruin, as in Flaubert’s Sentimental Education or Chekhov’s Cherry Orchard, is a great one in European literature. The superid, like the superego, may be moral or amoral. A moral style of life is one of virtue. An immoral style of life is one of vice. The moral superid loves virtue and loathes vice. Aristotle’s virtues are the noble ethical habits of the well-socialized superid-dominant agrarian aristocrat. With a moral superid there are no rules to recite, only moral beauty to emulate and perfect.

Worse, the spirit may be broken by a cruel and unyielding superego. Such a superego may derive from fear—for example, of dissoluteness, disrepute, damnation, poverty, humiliation, or abandonment—giving it an air of desperation. Or in a battered and bitter person the need for punishment may become the cornerstone of an iron discipline in which the superego rules severely. In the pathological pattern unfairly attributed by Nietzsche in On the Genealogy of Morals to the superego in general, a punitive superego feeds sadistically on the very misery inflicted by its self-punishment.

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