Inner Speech and Thought by A. Sokolov

By A. Sokolov

electrical job in the course of pondering, either with and with no verbalization and using language. even though possible easy, those experiments take on a truly advanced topic with which psychologists, linguists, and others are just commencing to come to grips. Sokolov and his staff have succeeded admirably in splitting the topic aside via riding within the wedges of target size and distinctive experimental formulations. bankruptcy IX dips into the neurology and neurophysiology of motor speech and its suggestions mechanisms and the dynamic localization and association of the cerebral mechanisms chargeable for symbolic formula of speech and notion. The bibliography brings jointly plenty of Russian guides in this topic, in addition to the various pertinent American and ecu literature. This ebook is a great addition to an incredible box. Donald B. Lindsley Professor, Departments of Psychology, body structure, and Psychiatry, and Member of the mind examine Institute, of California, l. a. college Contents creation .......................................... . half One normal difficulties of research bankruptcy I Theories of the Interrelation of Speech and inspiration ............... eleven bankruptcy II the matter of internal Speech in Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . 1. Early Investigations of internal Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . 2. dialogue of Inner-Speech in Soviet Psychology ............ forty six three. Verbal Interference tools within the research of internal Speech . . . . fifty two .

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This leads one to question which memory images are involved in thinking-auditory, visual, or motor. S. Stricker [2721 advanced the hypothesis that "speech representations are motor representations," and, in fact, asserted that he was unable to imagine any sound without sensing a muscular effort of some kind. Thus, in thinking of the sound of the letter b he tried to compress his lips, being aware of distinct tension in both lips; with the sound of the letter d he felt the involuntary movement of the tip of the tongue.

In a number of cases the mathematicians reported that in their thought process they used mental words, algebraic signs and various vague images. Hadamard himself insists that when he is engaged in thought, words are absent from his consciousness. Even he, however, retains a shadow of doubt, and he writes in a footnote: "It is quite possible, and rather probable, that words are present in fringe┬Ěconsciousness. Such is the case, I imagine, for me, as concerns words used in mathematics. I doubt, however, that it is so for some other kinds of thoughts because, if it were, I should have less difficulty in finding them" [238: 75].

If we were to use the teon "association," the * The report utilizes the brackets method: outside brackets, report on the "processes"; in parentheses, report on "objective meanings"; within brackets, experimenter's comments. 38 General Problems of Study author comments, "in its broadest sense, which would include both the peripheral kinesthetic processes and the processes of representation, we would be able to state that meanings accrue to words in the form of associations" [242: 564]. " It seems to follow that, since they are apprehended, the meanings of words undergo changes similar to those of associations.

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